Ethics in planning

In the past, planning was primarily described as a technical activity involving data collection, analysis, and synthesis of physical plans and supporting policies.

Now planning is seen as a much broader set of human activities, encompassing the physical world and also the realm of public and social services. Not surprisingly, planners' discussions of ethics have evolved. Professional ethics is regarded by many planners to be limited to a set of rules of behavior regarding interactions with the public, sources of data, government officials, and one another.

This shift is symbolized by the evolution of the labels by which ethics is known: from a circumscribed view of professional ethics to a broader concept of ethics in planning; both of which are discussed in this book.

Sue Hendler argues that planners recognize that every act of planning pursues certain human values and is a series of statements about what we take to be right or wrong and what we take to represent the highest priorities of the society. Planning Ethics explores planning within alternative moral theories, including liberalism, communitarianism, environmentalism, and feminism. The contributors illustrate the application of these ethical principles in specific planning contexts encompassing community development, land conversion, waste management, electric power planning, and education planning.

This is the next generation of thinking on ethics and planning. It will be a centerpiece of every planning curriculum. This approach to ethics restricts discussion of professional ethics to the propriety of everyday social and professional relationships.

Five Important Issues of Ethics & Social Responsibility in the Strategic Planning Process

It ignores the broader ethical content of planning practice, methods, and policies. While narrow definitions of ethical behavior can easily preoccupy public officials and professional associations, they divert attention from more profound moral issues. Martin Wachs argues that ethical issues are implicit in nearly all planning decisions.

For illustrative and educational reasons, it is useful to divide ethics in planning into four distinct categories. The first category includes the moral implications of bureaucratic practices and rules of behavior regarding clients and supervisors.

The second category includes ethical judgments which planners make in exercising their "administrative discretion. The final type represents the basic choices which society makes - those inherent in the consideration of major policy alternatives. Ethics in Planning contains a variety of representative papers to capture the current state of thinking. This book will be important as a text for survey classes in professional ethics given by university planning programs. It should also supplement short courses in planning ethics for practicing professionals and provide source materials for discussions of planning ethics sponsored by local chapters of the American Planning Association and similar organizations.

It gathers together exemplary and critical works, thus it will also interest individual planners in a field that only continues to grow in recognition and importance.

What is Strategic Planning, Really?

In such situations the line between business and pleasure blurs and the nature of relationships gets cloudy.Ethical Principles in Planning. This statement is a guide to ethical conduct for all who participate in the process of planning as advisors, advocates, and decision makers. It presents a set of principles to be held in common by certified planners, other practicing planners, appointed and elected officials, and others who participate in the process of planning.

The planning process exists to serve the public interest. While the public interest is a question of continuous debate, both in its general principles and in its case-by-case applications, it requires a conscientiously held view of the policies and actions that best serve the entire community. Planning issues commonly involve a conflict of values and, often, there are large private interests at stake.

These accentuate the necessity for the highest standards of fairness and honesty among all participants. Those who practice planning need to adhere to a special set of ethical requirements that must guide all who aspire to professionalism. The Code is formally subscribed to by each certified planner. It includes an enforcement procedure that is administered by AICP.

The Code, however, provides for more than the minimum threshold of enforceable acceptability. It also sets aspirational standards that require conscious striving to attain. The ethical principles derive both from the general values of society and from the planner's special responsibility to serve the public interest. As the basic values of society are often in competition with each other, so do these principles sometimes compete.

For example, the need to provide full public information may compete with the need to respect confidences. Plans and programs often result from a balancing among divergent interests. An ethical judgment often also requires a conscientious balancing, based on the facts and context of a particular situation and on the entire set of ethical principles.

This statement also aims to inform the public generally. It is also the basis for continuing systematic discussion of the application of its principles that is itself essential behavior to give them daily meaning. The planning process must continuously pursue and faithfully serve the public interest. Planning process participants continuously strive to achieve high standards of integrity and proficiency so that public respect for the planning process will be maintained.

APA members who are practicing planners continuously pursue improvement in their planning competence as well as in the development of peers and aspiring planners. They recognize that enhancement of planning as a profession leads to greater public respect for the planning process and thus serves the public interest.Fast Download speed and ads Free! The consideration of ethics in social research has gained increasing prominence in the past few years, particularly research which seeks to inform public policy.

This important and unique book provides a thorough examination of the issues relating to research ethics in planning for an international audience. The authors examine alternative frameworks within which ethical action can be discussed and critically describe the key institutional arrangements surrounding the management of ethical behaviour in research.

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Also included are highly relevant accounts of ethical challenges faced in planning research. Electronic Inspection Copy available for instructors here 'Thanks to this new book, psychology students now have a trustworthy and practical guide that takes them through all stages of qualitative research with rich examples and different paradigmatic perspectives.

This is a must-read for any student beginning the qualitative journey. While focusing mainly on undergraduate dissertations, this book will also be useful for postgraduate students.

It takes you through planning a qualitative project, stage by stage, addressing key issues and concerns along the way. The focus throughout is on how to make your project excellent! In addition, the book will help you with time management and working with your supervisor, as well as providing guidance on how you can use your project as the basis for publication or further study. The Routledge Handbook of Planning Research Methods is an expansive look at the traditions, methods, and challenges of research design and research projects in contemporary urban planning.

ethics in planning

Through case studies, an international group of researchers, planning practitioners, and planning academics and educators, all recognized authorities in the field, provide accounts of designing and implementing research projects from different approaches and venues.

This book shows how to apply quantitative and qualitative methods to projects, and how to take your research from the classroom to the real world. The book is structured into sections focusing on Beginning planning research Research design and development Rediscovering qualitative methods New advances in quantitative methods Turning research into action With chapters written by leading scholars in spatial planning, The Routledge Handbook of Planning Research Methods is the most authoritative and comprehensive handbook on the topic, providing both established and ground breaking coverage of spatial planning research methods.

The book is an invaluable resource for undergraduate and graduate level students, young professionals and practitioners in urban, regional, and spatial planning.

ethics in planning

The book proposes a set of original contributions in research areas shared by planning theory, architectural research, design and ethical inquiry. The contributors gathered in at the Ethics of the Built Environment seminar organized by the editors at Delft University of Technology.

Both prominent and emerging scholars presented their researches in the areas of aesthetics, technological risks, planning theory and architecture. The scope of the seminar was highlighting shared lines of ethical inquiry among the themes discussed, in order to identify perspectives of innovative interdisciplinary research.

After the seminar all seminar participants have elaborated their proposed contributions. Some of the most prominent international authors in the field were subsequently invited to join in with this inquiry.

Between and she worked as Coordinator of the 3TU Centre of Excellence for Ethics and Technology of Delft University, where she completed her post-doc research on the shared areas of investigation between risk theories, planning theories and ethical inquiry.

Her main research interests concern the matter of assessing and governing technological risks in relation to sustainable land use planning.

She wrote a number of journal articles and contributions to collective books on these themes. His main research interests concern planning theory and ethics.

He is the author of a number of books and journal articles. Providing a comprehensive guide to devising an effective research design, Uwe Flick discusses each stage of the process of designing qualitative research in detail, including formulating a research design, selecting an appropriate strategy, conceptual framework and data source, and collecting and analyzing data.

A practical guide to carrying out ethical research with children and young people, this practical handbook examines the ethical questions that arise at each stage of research, from first plans to dissemination and impact. Illustrated with case studies from international and inter-disciplinary research, it offers advice for addressing each ethical question, issue or uncertainty.Honest financial planners can face real dilemmas when trying to do the right thing for their clients. There are some common dilemmas investment professionals may face, and but also guidance on how you can tackle them.

A generation ago, both the tax code and the financial products and services available were simpler than they are today. For example, if someone wanted to buy stock, a stockbroker would place the trade.

ethics in planning

If someone needed permanent life coverage, a whole life policy was issued. But now, planners must decide if this traditional approach is better, or whether the client would be better off buying any number of the diverse other products available. Likewise, a client who is put into a universal variable life policy may have actually been better off in whole life. The problem extends to investments.

Putting clients in suitable portfolios means evaluating and sticking with a client's risk tolerance and time horizon. Even if an investment is suitable in terms of riskiness, an ethical issue involves cost. The client's needs must be put first. The CFP designation is not the only one to define ethical standards for their members to follow. Regardless of what legal or moral standard they are held to, one of the biggest ethical dilemmas planners face is choosing a method of compensation.

The methods of compensation for both sales-driven practitioners and planners are often interchangeable since each can charge either fees or commissions for their services. A fee-based planner — one who charges clients based on a percentage of their assets — will increase his or her compensation simply by making the client's assets grow.

This type of compensation could motivate the planner to employ more aggressive investment strategies than would a traditional commission-based broker. A commission-based planner, on the other hand, is compensated for each transaction, regardless of portfolio gains or losses. These brokers face the temptation to use transactions as a means of revenue, even if they manage to avoid the technical definition of " churning.

In this sense, each type of compensation presents its own set of ethical issues. Ultimately, planners must be willing to subordinate their own benefit to that of their clients, regardless of what business model is used. Take for example a planner that can work on either an hourly fee or a commission basis.

This extreme variance in compensation could easily sway even the most stalwart planner. The key thing to remember is that you must act in the best interests of your client, not your wallet. The boundaries between sales and advice in the financial industry are becoming increasingly blurred, as new platforms and methods of doing business continue to emerge.

What this usually boils down to is getting clients to do the right thing for the right reason. Many clients will base their financial decisions on emotions rather than what their planner advises.

If she lives for another 25 years, her savings will likely be depleted long before she dies, since these low-risk investments pay a tiny rate of return that will be offset by inflation over time.

As a planner, you obviously need to get your client to diversify her holdings with a sensible asset allocationor at least to consider some sort of immediate annuity option. But how far should you go in encouraging her to do this? Is it okay for you to use aggressive, fear-based sales tactics, or even bend the truth a little, in order to help this client? After all, it clearly is in her best interest to do this.Our Code is divided into five sections:.

Ethics in Planning

Section A contains a statement of aspirational principles that constitute the ideals to which we are committed. We shall strive to act in accordance with our stated principles.

However, an allegation that we failed to achieve our aspirational principles cannot be the subject of a misconduct charge or be a cause for disciplinary action. Section B contains rules of conduct to which we are held accountable. If we violate any of these rules, we can be the object of a charge of misconduct and shall have the responsibility of responding to and cooperating with the investigation and enforcement procedures.

If we are found to be blameworthy by the AICP Ethics Committee, we shall be subject to the imposition of sanctions that may include loss of our certification. Section C contains the procedural provisions of the Code that describe how one may obtain either a formal or informal advisory ruling, as well as the requirements for an annual report.

Section D contains the procedural provisions that detail how a complaint of misconduct can be filed, as well as how these complaints are investigated and adjudicated. Section E contains procedural provisions regarding the forms of disciplinary actions against a planner, including those situations where a planner is convicted of a serious crime or other conduct inconsistent with the responsibilities of a certified planner.

The principles to which we subscribe in Sections A and B of the Code derive from the special responsibility of our profession to serve the public interest with compassion for the welfare of all people and, as professionals, to our obligation to act with high integrity.

As the basic values of society can come into competition with each other, so can the aspirational principles we espouse under this Code. An ethical judgment often requires a conscientious balancing, based on the facts and context of a particular situation and on the precepts of the entire Code. As Certified Planners, all of us are also members of the American Planning Association and share in the goal of building better, more inclusive communities. We want the public to be aware of the principles by which we practice our profession in the quest of that goal.

We sincerely hope that the public will respect the commitments we make to our employers and clients, our fellow professionals, and all other persons whose interests we affect. Our primary obligation is to serve the public interest and we, therefore, owe our allegiance to a conscientiously attained concept of the public interest that is formulated through continuous and open debate.

ethics in planning

We shall achieve high standards of professional integrity, proficiency, and knowledge. To comply with our obligation to the public, we aspire to the following principles:.

Participation should be broad enough to include those who lack formal organization or influence. We shall urge the alteration of policies, institutions, and decisions that oppose such needs.Ethics refer to the fundamental principles of an individual or a group.

Social responsibility is how a business performs its activities to meet its wider obligations toward the society and environment, such as by avoiding activities which may be harmful. Ethical values and social responsibility serve an important role in the strategic planning process. Management must ensure that strategic decisions are reached after taking into account the possible impact on the stakeholders.

Stakeholders are suppliers, customers, societies and anybody who is affected by the activities of the business. A socially responsible company treats stakeholders equally. Wider perspectives also have to be considered in terms of environmental and social impact of planned activities. Members of management should provide information transparently and honestly to help all involved discuss, debate and reach better decision-making.

This enables the team to identify and monitor any potential risks which may arise and find an alternative solution. In terms of social responsibility, transparency also enhances the company's credibility toward its external stakeholders.

A management meeting provides an opportunity for management team members to raise concerns and come up with new ideas. It should be conducted in a professional and coherent manner and everyone should be independent in providing ideas without fear or hesitance as this helps improve the quality of the discussion and the decisions reached.

Members should respect others' opinions by giving them the opportunity to speak and by listening to their ideas with interest. Constructive comments develop more intellectual discussion but should be dealt with in a way which does not hurt the other members' feelings. Discussion in a friendly environment improves the relationship among the members, strengthens the strategic planning process and results in better decision-making. During the planning process, the team should take a fair and truthful look at the possible risks and impact of decisions reached.

These need to be thoroughly considered to maintain the welfare of the stakeholders such as employees and the society at large. Members should be truthful and frank in providing ideas and comments. Aminah Abdullah has been writing articles on finance and other subjects since She holds a Certified Accounting Technician qualification and is currently pursuing professional status through the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants.

Share It.Planning is both a profession and a discipline that has at its foundation questions of how to best develop land, social programs, housing, parks, health services, and other aspects of human settlements. Planning ethics is focused on terms such as best as it appears in this characterization of planning, where ethics, or moral philosophy, provides a means of analyzing normative ways of responding to planning challenges.

Planning began largely as a community-led process focusing on aesthetics, safety, and health concerns at the neighborhood level.

As planning became professionalized in North America in the lates and earlys, urban design, economic vitality and order, beauty, and efficiency became prominent considerations. Planning issues later expanded to include environmental conservation and preservation, energy consumption, empowerment including public participationand heritage conservation HodgeKrueckeberg Historically the planning profession has evolved from an almost exclusive focus on the technical aspects of developing and conserving land to concern with a more holistic view of urban areas and regions.

It has changed its disciplinary base from emphasizing engineering and architecture to striving for balance among the natural, physical, and social sciences. Planning is thus often described as an art as well as a science see for instance Canadian Institute of Planners While debates regarding these shifts are clear and progressive in academic circles, it is fair to say that society continues to view planners largely as technical experts in land development and, to a lesser extent, social and health programming.

Planning, science, and technology are connected in multiple ways. The use of science and technology by planning and planners is clear in the form of mapping techniques such as Geographical Information Systems GISecological theories, analytic and computing techniques, computer aided design, and others.

Indeed one of the central criticisms of planning as an autonomous profession is the fact that it borrows methods, techniques, and tools from the social, natural, and physical sciences as well as the arts. This calls into question its independence as a field of inquiry, but is also often regarded as a strength in terms of underlining the inter- and multi-disciplinary nature of planning.

In addition to the use by planners of science and technology, technological advances have been linked to changing urban forms and activity patterns.

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Wireless communication, for example, calls into question the shape s of cities, transportation flows, and employment locations. Such phenomena have altered the perceptions and analyses of planners who help to shape these areas. Conversely planning contributes to science and technology by demonstrating the effects of scientific theories and technological advances on the ground and can thus play a role in their refinement.

Planners must, at the end of the day, develop a plan or make a recommendation, while scientists often study a given problem for an unlimited period of time. In this way, science and technology as used in planning has an immediacy that may lead to the adoption, adaptation, or abandonment of a given development.

Ethical aspects of planning, science, and technology may be discussed in terms of research as well as professional practice. Planning academics conduct research that contributes to the development of the field; planning practitioners also conduct research but their work is typically limited to issues with which they must deal in their everyday work.

The ethical issues in both activities are similar, although particulars change. The following discussion includes examples from both fields of endeavor.

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Ethics is used here as a synonym for moral philosophy; it does not replace other terms such as values, beliefs, morality, and morals. Instead it connotes a way of studying and addressing moral problems utilizing ethical theories and rigorous analysis. Ethical theories such as utilitarianism, Kantian thought, communitarianism, and rights-based morality, among others from sub-fields such as feminist ethics and environmental ethics, are used to help explore normative issues in planning and arrive at viable solutions.

Planning ethics, as part of professional ethics and, more generally, applied ethics, has been discussed in terms of five separate aspects of the field WachsHendler : everyday behavior; plans and policies; administrative discretion; the normative intent of the planning endeavor planning theory ; and planning techniques.

Teaching Ethics in Planning

Each category of ideas and action includes reference to issues of science and technology. Everyday behavior refers to the actions of planners in the day-to-day context of their work.

Conflict of interest is a typical ethical issue here. Should a land use planner accept a gift in return for expediting a development proposal? Should social planners bias a new service or program in ways that would help their family members?

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